Hamadān is the capital city of Hamedan Province of Iran. Hamadan is believed to be among the oldest Iranian cities and one of the oldest in the world. It is possible that it was occupied by the Assyrians in 1100 BCE; the Ancient Greek historian, Herodotus, states that it was the capital of the Medes, around 700 BCE. Deioces, king of Medians, is said to have built a capital for himself he named Hegmataneh or (Ecbatana) meaning ‘City for all’ or ‘place of gathering’ as he united all Median tribes to establish his kingdom.
The city was ruined during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II (634-562 BC) and was rebuilt by Darius I (550 – 486 BC). The Parthians (247 BC–224 CE) and Sassanids (224 - 651 CE) chose Hamadan as their summer capital because of its mild weather, building magnificent palaces to serve as their residence during the warmer months of the year.
Hamaden fell into ruin following the fall of the Sassanid Empire. It was not until the 18th century and the rule of the Safavids (1502 – 1736) that Hamadan once again flourished and became a thriving center of commerce. Hamadan was invaded in World War I and its control was returned to the Iranian government in 1918 at the end of the war.
The capital of Persian culture and civilization, located along the ancient Silk Road Hamadan is a city situated at the foot of the Alvand Mountain, 360 kilometers from the capital Tehran. The city has mild, dry summers and cold, snowy winters.
Hamadan is home to many poets and cultural celebrities. The city is also said to be among the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities. Hamadan has always been well known for handicrafts like pots, ceramic, and kilims. Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization lists 207 sites of historical and cultural significance in the city of Hamadan alone. This ancient city is home to Muslim, Christian and Jewish religious communities. The Tomb of Esther and Mordechai in Hamadan is a revered Jewish pilgrimage site.
Alavian Dome, Nazari House and Garden, the Stone Lion, and the tomb of poet Baba Tahir and Ganjnameh inscription are some of the major attractions of the city.
Hamedan is the final resting place of Persian polymath Avicenna (980-1037). Some of the other famous personalities from the city include mystic, philosopher, poet and mathematician Ayn al-Quzat Hamadani (1098–1131), Sufi master and poet Fakhr-al-Din Iraqi (1213 – 1289), journalist, political activist and poet Mirzadeh Eshghi (1893 - 1924), historian and one of the founders of Encyclopedia Iranica Ehsan Yarshater (1920), Iranian scientist Samuel Rahbar (1929 - 2012) and director Amir Shahab Razavian (1965).
-Tomb of Ester and Mordechai
-Baba taher mausoleum
-Hegmataneh (Ecbatana) town
-Ganj nameh complex